Main Article Content


Malaria is an important vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasite. Malaria infection during pregnancy is a significant public health problem, with substantial risks for the pregnant woman, her fetus and the newborn child. Despite its implementation, the uptake of SP was very low. The study was to assess the effectiveness of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine in preventing malaria among pregnant women: a study in three major hospitals, Ahafo region, Ghana. This was a cross-sectional study that employed a quantitative method. The study was conducted in three major health facilities within a short period. Structures questionnaires were administered to 364 pregnant women randomly sampled from Antenatal clinics of the selected health facilities. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis of quantitative data was done using Stata version 15. A total of 364 pregnant women in the second and third trimesters were studied. From the study, it was revealed that 54.40% received less than three (< 3) doses of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine during the current pregnancy, with 45.60% receiving three or more (≥ 3) doses of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy at the time of the study. The study revealed that women who attended ANC 5-6 times had a significant association (AOR=4.2024, 95% CI=2.1317-8.2848) and under direct observation therapy (AOR=0.3917, 95% CI=0.2210-0.6941) were positively associated with the uptake of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine. This study demonstrated that the number of ANC attendance and Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy could significantly influence the uptake of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine. Therefore, pregnant women should be encouraged to attend ANC frequently (at least five or more visits) could also improve the uptake of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine.


Malaria Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine Pregnant Women

Article Details

How to Cite
Fiavor, F. ., Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, P. P. ., Addo, I. J. ., Chinaza Adaobi, C., Michelle Apedzi, C. ., & An-ichie Muanah, I. . (2022). Assessment of the Effectiveness of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine in Prevention of Malaria Among Pregnant Women. Convergence Chronicles, 3(2), 595–609.


  1. Adeola, O., Oluyomi, S., Sola, A., Bassey, O., Oluwagbemiga, A., Olusola, A., Adebayo Temitayo, O., & Bamgboye Morakinyo, A. (2018). Performance of Microscopy Method and Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Malaria Diagnosis amongst Pregnant Women in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Diversity & Equality in Health and Care, 15(3), 104–109.
  2. Amankwah, S., & Anto, F. (2019). Factors Associated with Uptake of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy : A Cross-Sectional Study in Private Health Facilities in Tema Metropolis, Ghana. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 1–11.
  3. Andrade, C. (2015). Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms are as simple as possible. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 76(7), e857–e861.
  4. Andrew, E. V. W., Pell, C., Angwin, A., Auwun, A., Daniels, J., Mueller, I., Phuanukoonnon, S., & Pool, R. (2015). Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Concerning Malaria in Pregnancy : Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea. PLoS One, 10(4), 1–20.
  5. Anto, F., Agongo, I. H., Asoala, V., Awini, E., & Oduro, A. R. (2019). Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy : Assessment of the Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Three-Dose Policy on Birth Outcomes in Rural Northern Ghana. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2019, 1–11.
  6. Appiah, S. (2012). Multiple logistic regression analysis to determine risk factors for the clinical diagnosis of diabetes case study: Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (2008-2009). Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, 1–97.
  7. Awasthi, M. S., Awasthi, K. R., Thapa, H. S., Saud, B., Pradhan, S., & Khatry, R. A. (2018). The utilisation of Antenatal Care Services in Dalit Communities in Gorkha, Nepal : A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Pregnancy, 1–9.
  8. Ayiisi, E. A. (2017). Knowledge and Utilization of Intermittent Preventive Treatment ( IPT ) for Malaria Control Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in the Sunyani West District of Ghana. Science Journal of Public Health, 5(3), 254–262.
  9. Azizi, S. C. (2020). Uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Malawi after adopting updated World Health Organization policy : an analysis of demographic and health survey 2015 – 2016. BMC Public Health, 20(335), 1–12.
  10. Berry, I., Walker, P., Tagbor, H., Bojang, K., Coulibaly, S. O., Kayentao, K., Williams, J., Oduro, A., Milligan, P., Chandramohan, D., Greenwood, B., & Cairns, M. (2018). Seasonal Dynamics of Malaria in Pregnancy in West Africa : Evidence for Carriage of Infections Acquired Before Pregnancy Until First Contact with Antenatal Care. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 98(2), 534–542.
  11. Burt, A., Coulibaly, M., Crisanti, A., Diabate, A., Kayondo, J. K., Burt, A., Coulibaly, M., Crisanti, A., & Diabate, A. (2018). Gene drives to reduce malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Responsible Innovation, 5(1), S66–S80.
  12. Cullen, K. A., Mace, K. E., Arguin, P. M., & Cullen, K. A. (2016). Malaria Surveillance — the United States, 2013. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), 65(2), 1–22.
  13. Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), Ghana Health Service (GHS), and I. I. 2015. (2015). Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Rockville, Maryland, USA: GSS, GHS, and ICF International., 1–530.
  14. Gudayu, T. W., Woldeyohannes, S. M., & Abdo, A. A. (2014). Timing and factors associated with first antenatal care booking among pregnant mothers in Gondar Town; North West Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14(1).
  15. Kimbi, A., Kimbi, J. K. A., Kalaji, L. N., Mbacham, H. F., Wepnje, G. B., Apinjoh, T. O., Sumbele, I. U. N., Odom, J. D., Tita, A. T. N., & Achidi, E. A. (2020). Coverage and effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp‑SP) on adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Mount Cameroon area, South West Cameroon. Malaria Journal, 19(100), 1–12.
  16. Kumar, D. K., Raj, P. Y., Bahadur, K. R., Kumar, B. R., Rajan, P., Suresh, M., & Raj, W. R. (2015). Barriers to utilisation of antenatal care services in eastern Nepal. Frontiers in Public Health, 3(August), 1–7.
  17. Kweku, M., Ofori, M., Takramah, W., Axame, W. K., Owusu, R., Parbey, P. A., Tarkang, E., & Adjuik, M. (2017). Assessment of coverage and mothers’ knowledge on SP-IPTp implementation and factors associated with high knowledge in the Hohoe Municipality of Ghana. Semantic Scholar, 4(4), 120–131.
  18. Levin, K. A. (2014). Study Design III : cross-sectional studies Study design III : Cross-sectional studies. Researchgate, 7(February), 24–25.
  19. Madanitsa, M., Kalilani, L., Mwapasa, V., Eijk, A. M., Van, Khairallah, C., Ali, D., Pace, C., Smedley, J., Thwai, K., Levitt, B., Wang, D., Kang, A., Faragher, B., Taylor, S. M., Meshnick, S., & Kuile, F. O. (2016). Scheduled Intermittent Screening with Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi : An Open-Label Randomized Controlled T. PLOS Medicine, 13(9), 1–19.
  20. Marchesini, P., Costa, F. T. M., & Marinho, C. R. F. (2014). A decade of malaria during pregnancy in Brazil : what has been done concerning prevention and management. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 109(August), 706–708.
  21. Mubashir, M., Ahmed, K. S., Mubashir, H., Quddusi, A., Farooq, A., Irfan, S., Bushra, A., & Rahat, J. (2020). Dengue and malaria infections in pregnancy Maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes at a tertiary care hospital. Wien Klin Wochenschr, 132, 188–196.
  22. Nkunzimana, E., & Babale, M. S. (2020). Knowledge and Utilisation of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria. East African Health Research Journal, 4(1), 81–91. v4i1.625
  23. Okell, L. C., Ghani, A. C., Lyons, E., & Drakeley, C. J. (2009). Submicroscopic infection in plasmodium falciparum-endemic populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 200(10), 1509–1517.
  24. Oppong, F. B., Gyaase, S., Zandoh, C., Nettey, O. E. A., Amenga-etego, S., Anane, E. A., Adda, R., Dosoo, D. K., Owusu-agyei, S., & Asante, K. P. (2019). Intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women in the Kintampo area of Ghana with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine ( SP ): trends spanning 2011 and 2015. BMJ Open, 9, 1–10.
  25. Owusu-Boateng, I., & Anto, F. (2017). Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey to assess uptake of the new sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine five dose policy in Ghana. Malaria Journal, 16(1), 323.
  26. Quakyi, I., Tornyigah, B., Houze, P., Kwadwo, A. K., Coleman, N., Escriou, G., Laar, A., Cot, M., Fobil, J., A, G. Q., Deloron, P., Abraham, K. A., Cottrell, G., Ofori, M. F., & Ndam, N. T. (2019). High uptake of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy is associated with improved birth weight among pregnant women in Ghana. Scientific reports, 5–12.
  27. Sabin, L., Hecht, E. M. S., Brooks, M. I., Singh, M. P., Antwi, K. Y., Rizal, A., Wylie, B. J., Bondzie, P. A., Banos, M., Tuchman, J., Singh, N., & Hamer, D. H. (2018). Prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnancy : what do pregnant women and health care workers in East India know and do about it ? Malaria Journal, 17(207), 1–13.
  28. Sangho, O., Tounkara, M., Whiting-Collins, L. J., Beebe, M., Winch, P. J., & Doumbia, S. (2020). Determinants of Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Pregnant Women ( IPTp-SP ) in Mali, a household survey. BMC Malaria Journal, 1–26.
  29. Sikambale, C., Halwindi, H., & Baboo, K. S. (2013). Factors influencing utilization of intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria (IPTP) services by pregnant women in Sesheke district of western province Zambia. Medical Journal of Zambia, 40(1), 24–32.
  30. Tutu, E., Lawson, B., & Browne, E. (2011). The effectiveness and perception of the use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy programme in Offinso district of Ashanti region, Ghana. Malaria Journal, 10(1), 385.
  31. Umeh, S. I., Enwuru, C. P., & Egbuobi, R. C. (2013). Diagnosis of Malaria in Pregnancy : A Comparison of Microscopy with Rapid Diagnostic Tests. Microbiology Research Int., 1(3), 35–39.
  32. Uyanık, G. K., & Güler, N. (2013). A Study on Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 106, 234–240.
  33. Vandy, A. O., Peprah, N. Y., Jerela, J. Y., Titiati, P., Manu, A., Akamah, J., Maya, E. T., & Torpey, K. (2019). Factors influencing adherence to the new intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy policy in Keta District of the Volta Region, Ghana. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19(1), 1–8.
  34. WHO. (2004a). A Strategic Framework for Malaria Prevention and Control During Pregnancy in the African Region. Brazzaville: WHO Regional Office for Africa, World Health Organization, 1–38.
  35. Yaya, S., Kota, K., Buh, A., & Bishwajit, G. (2019). Antenatal visits are positively associated with uptake of tetanus toxoid and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy in the Ivory Coast. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 1–12.
  36. Yaya, S., Uthman, O. A., Amouzou, A., & Bishwajit, G. (2018). Use of Intermittent Preventive Treatment among Pregnant Women in Sub-Saharan Africa : Evidence from Malaria Indicator Surveys. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3(18), 1–11.

Most read articles by the same author(s)