Scholars Journal of Science and Technology <ul> <li><strong>Editor in Chief:</strong> Beverly Kracher, Ph.D. <strong><img src="" /></strong></li> <li><strong>Associate Chief Editor:</strong> Prof. Samantha Dieckmann</li> <li><strong>E-ISSN: <a title="ISSN" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2955-7844</a></strong></li> <li><strong>Issues per year:</strong> 6 Issues (<strong>Bi-Monthly</strong>) </li> <li><strong>Impact Factor: </strong><a title="Impact" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">3.836</a></li> <li><strong>Review Speed:</strong> 24 Days</li> <li><strong>Publication Time:</strong> 1.2 Weeks</li> <li><strong>Acceptance Rate: </strong> 17%</li> <li><strong><a href=";authuser=9&amp;user=FQ83EDoAAAAJ">Google Scholar</a> Citation:</strong> 3202</li> <li><strong>Google Scholar i10-index:</strong> 48</li> </ul> en-US <p>The submitting author warrants that the submission is original and that she/he is the author of the submission together with the named co-authors; to the extent the submission incorporates text passages, figures, data, or other material from the work of others, the submitting author has obtained any necessary permission. By submitting an article the author grants this journal the non-exclusive right to publish it. The author retains the copyright and the publishing rights for his article without any restrictions. </p> (Professor. Zakir Aliyev) (Dr. Nancy Maynes) Tue, 04 Jul 2023 20:40:46 +0000 OJS 60 Academic Stress and Coping Mechanisms among Married Postgraduate Students in Ghana <p>This study was conducted to investigate academic stress and its coping mechanisms among married postgraduate students in the Sunyani Municipality. A case study design was conducted using the purposive sampling technique to select a sample size of 22 first- and final-year married postgraduate students from the Faculty of Education at the Catholic University of Ghana, Fiapre. The main data collection instrument was the in-depth interview (IDI). The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The study found that financial commitments, time constraints, complaints from partners, a workload combining assignments and work, frustration, and difficulty meeting academic demands were common causes of academic stress among married postgraduate students. The study found that the effects of stress on academic life include difficulty-managing studies, an inability to join group studies, an inability to attend lectures regularly, financial problems, relationship difficulties, physical health issues, increased levels of anxiety and depression, a lack of concentration during lectures, and poor academic performance. The study revealed that the effects of stress on married life include inadequate time spent with a spouse, breakdown of communication, conflicts, reduction in sexual satisfaction, inability to meet the financial needs of a spouse, and difficulty balancing family life and academic work. The study found that relaxing, sleeping, showering, listening to music, talking with friends, doing physical activity, viewing television, and praying are some commonly used stress-coping strategies among married postgraduate students. The study concluded that married postgraduate students experience a substantial amount of stress, which affects their academic and married lives. The study recommends that academic institutions and policymakers develop targeted interventions and support services to address these stressors.</p> Felicia Gyasewaa, Larissa Agbemelo-Tsomafo, Daniel Tinyogtaa Adama, Stephen Nanyele, Anita Love Obo Amissah, Joseph Effah Boabeng, Ruth Morkor Boye, Monica Assifuah-Nunoo Copyright (c) 2023 Felicia Gyasewaa, Larissa Agbemelo-Tsomafo, Daniel Tinyogtaa Adama, Stephen Nanyele, Anita Love Obo Amissah, Joseph Effah Boabeng, Ruth Morkor Boye, Monica Assifuah-Nunoo Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Transforming School Discipline: From Corporal Punishment to Positive Discipline and Student Leadership <p>This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of student discipline within educational settings, highlighting the transition from traditional punitive measures to more progressive and effective approaches. The primary focus is on the ineffectiveness of corporal punishment and the subsequent shift towards positive discipline practices that emphasize empathy, understanding, and communication. The article advocates for student leadership roles as a key alternative, proposing the involvement of students in decision-making processes through student councils, peer mediation, and school governance. This approach not only addresses behavioral management but also fosters essential life skills, such as leadership, teamwork, and problem-solving in students. The article further discusses the importance of professional development for educators in these new disciplinary techniques, the role of parental and community engagement, and the need for policy advocacy to support these changes. Regular evaluation and feedback mechanisms are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and continual improvement of these methods. The article concludes by underscoring the benefits of these approaches, including enhanced student development, reduced disciplinary referrals, and improved academic performance, advocating for their wider adoption in schools.</p> Kyeremeh Dennis Copyright (c) 2023 Kyeremeh Dennis Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment and Spatial Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) Dynamics in the Black Volta Basin <p>The Black Volta Basin, a critical hydrological region, is experiencing rapid changes in Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) patterns due to diverse anthropogenic and environmental factors. This study employs a comprehensive Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology to assess and analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of LULC in the basin. Utilizing data from multiple remote sensing platforms, including optical and radar sensors, as well as historical GIS datasets, a detailed LULC classification is performed. The integration of multi-temporal satellite imagery enables the detection and quantification of changes across distinct land cover categories. Through rigorous spatial analysis and statistical techniques, the study reveals the extent and magnitude of LULC transformations over a defined period. Land cover transitions are identified, characterized, and linked to potential drivers such as urbanization, agricultural expansion, and natural processes. The outcomes of this research contribute to an enhanced understanding of the evolving LULC dynamics in the Black Volta Basin, shedding light on both natural and human-induced changes. The results underscore the significance of a multi-sensor approach in accurately capturing complex LULC changes and their implications for regional sustainability and resource management. This study's insights serve as valuable inputs for policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders engaged in land-use planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development within the Black Volta Basin and similar ecologically sensitive areas.</p> Salifu Ali Dayinday Copyright (c) 2023 Salifu Ali Dayinday Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Population Growth, Unemployment Rate and Economic Development in Sub–Saharan African Countries (1990-2020) <p>The study examined the impact of population growth and unemployment on Economic Development in sub-Saharan African countries from 1990-2020. Using econometric analysis, the study used data on gross domestic product (GDP), population growth rate (POP), unemployment rate (UNEM), and human development index (HDI). The result showed that unemployment has a negative significant relationship with economic development, and population growth has a positive significant relationship with economic development in sub-Saharan African countries. The study, therefore, recommended that government should make sure that the life expectancies in the countries increase, which will reduce the death rate and consequently increase the population and the economic development in the sub-Saharan African countries. It recommended policies to reduce the unemployment rate and promote economic Development in Sub-Shaharan African Countries.</p> Adeyemo Joel Tobiloba, Olaniyan Samson Olajide , Olabiyi Kehinde Ajike Copyright (c) 2023 Geetanjali Wasson Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Head Teachers' Leadership Styles on Teachers' Commitment in the Ledzokuku Municipality <p>The study examines the influence of leadership styles on commitment in the Ledzokuku Municipality. A cross-sectional sample method was used in this research. A quantitative approach was used, and a sample size of 425 was chosen. The population size is 850, which comprises all head teachers and teachers currently teaching in public basic schools in the Ledzokuku Municipality. The findings revealed that, collectively, leadership styles significantly influence commitment. To ascertain the extent to which demographic factors (sex, age, academic qualification, marital status, and tenure) collectively affect commitment, the research hypothesis was formulated and tested. The findings disclosed that demographic factors do not significantly affect commitment. According to the study, head teachers who use the full range of leadership styles have more dedicated teachers. As a result, it is suggested that the Ministry of Education and the Ghana Education Service pay more attention to the complete spectrum of leadership styles when recruiting head teachers in order to enhance teacher engagement and retention in the Ledzokuku Municipality.</p> Ruth Morkor Boye, Hinneh Kusi Copyright (c) 2023 Ruth Morkor Boye, Hinneh Kusi Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Corporal Punishment in Schools and Its Effect on Academic Success in Ghana <p>This article examines the effects of corporal punishment on academic success in Ghanaian schools. Initially considered an effective disciplinary tool, corporal punishment is now increasingly scrutinized for its long-term negative impacts on students' psychological well-being, motivation, engagement, and academic performance. Research indicates that physically disciplined students often face decreased academic motivation, lower self-esteem, higher truancy, and dropout rates. Such punishment can impair essential cognitive functions and foster a learning environment marked by fear and resentment, rather than encouragement and growth. The article also discusses the shift in Ghana towards alternative disciplinary methods, reflecting a global movement towards more humane and effective educational practices. These include positive reinforcement and restorative practices, which focus on building a supportive and inclusive school community. The involvement of organizations like the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Human Rights Watch highlights the international dimension of this issue, emphasizing the need for legislative and educational reforms. The cultural and legal context in Ghana has traditionally supported corporal punishment, rooted in deep-seated beliefs about discipline and respect. However, this stance is evolving due to global human rights movements and changing societal norms. The debate within Ghana mirrors the global discourse on the balance between traditional practices and modern educational philosophies. The article outlines the potential positive impacts of corporal punishment, such as immediate deterrence and maintenance of discipline, while noting the strong evidence of its adverse effects, including psychological harm, anxiety, disengagement from school, and long-term behavioral issues. These negative impacts suggest that corporal punishment is more likely to hinder than foster academic success.</p> Kyeremeh Dennis, Badu-Yeboah Emmanuel Copyright (c) 2023 Kyeremeh Dennis, Badu-Yeboah Emmanuel Tue, 21 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy and Economic Development in Selected Countries West Africa <p>The study examined the impact of Monetary and fiscal policy on Economic Development in some selected West African countries. Using Human Development Index to measure Economic Development, money supply to capture Monetary Policy, and Fiscal Policy was measured through government expenditure and government revenue. The data used were exacted from the World Bank indicators and the data collected were analyzed using correlation analysis, unit root test, and trend regression analyses. The results obtained revealed that there is a Positive significant relationship between Money supply and Economic Development. In addition, Fiscal policy measured by Government Expenditure showed a positive significant relationship with Economic Development., and Government Revenue revealed a positive relationship with Economic Development. The study recommended among others that government should increase its expenditures by increasing the money supply to the economy and appropriate measures should be put in place to control inflation in the country.</p> Olaniyan Samson Olajide, Adeoti Kayode Shola Copyright (c) 2023 Olaniyan Samson Olajide, Adeoti Kayode Shola Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Family Factors and Students’ Academic Performance of Students in Senior High Schools <p>The study aimed at examining family factors and students’ academic achievements. The overarching motivation for this work was a desire to understand and recognize the relevance of family factors in advancing the academic performance of the student. A sample size of three hundred and fifty-six (356) respondents was used for this study. A questionnaire was the main data collection instrument used for the study. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test of independence were used in the analysis of quantitative data using SPSS version 22 and Microsoft Excel software. The results showed a positive association between parental income level and students’ academic performance. Student performance was found to be significantly associated with family size, the educational status of the family head, and parental involvement in the student’s educational effort. Parents and guardians should understand and recognize the critical role of families in creating an enabling and supportive learning environment for students in their educational efforts. Further causal study is needed to assess the relative importance of family factors on the academic performance of the student.</p> Felicia Gyasewaa, Daniel Tinyogtaa Adama, Stephen Nanyele, Anita Love Obo Amissah Copyright (c) 2023 Felicia Gyasewaa, Daniel Tinyogtaa Adama, Stephen Nanyele Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hypertensive Disorders During Pregnancy: A Literature Review <p>Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) are a significant health concern worldwide and a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies on the subject, there is a need for a comprehensive and updated systematic review to consolidate the existing evidence and provide a better understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, management strategies, and outcomes associated with HDP. We conducted a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A thorough search of electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, Scholar Indexing Society, Embase, and Cochrane Library, was performed. The search included studies published up to September 2021. Eligibility criteria included articles written in English, involving human subjects, and investigating hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The initial search yielded a substantial number of articles related to HDP. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, a final selection of studies was included in the review. The findings revealed a wide range of factors associated with the development of HDP, including maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, family history of hypertension, and certain lifestyle factors. Additionally, the review explored the impact of HDP on maternal and fetal health, including increased risks of preeclampsia, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and other adverse outcomes. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain a significant public health concern with potentially severe consequences for both mother and child. Understanding the risk factors and possible interventions is crucial for early detection, prevention, and appropriate management of HDP. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on HDP, which may help guide further research and inform healthcare policies aimed at reducing the burden of this condition.</p> Derrick Osei Asamoah , Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong Copyright (c) 2023 Derrick Osei Asamoah , Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Audiences' Choice of Sources and Verification of News: Do Age and Educational Level Matter in Ghana? <p>Today's news media landscape exposes audiences to multi-faceted media choices. Using an audience-centered approach in a cross-sectional survey of 419 respondents, we examined the audience's choice of news sources and their assessment of media credibility and verification of news as determined by the demographic factors of age and educational level. The results indicate that mainstream news media outlets are generally more popular than social media, but the latter has more appeal among younger people. While audiences' age and education count in selecting the most reliable news outlets, the different age brackets generally have similar tendencies to validate the news they receive from their most reliable sources. However, persons with higher levels of education are more likely to validate news than those with lower levels of education. Thus, we discuss the implications of our findings on fake news and misinformation for young people.</p> Peter Nkrumah Amponsah, Mavis Okyere Copyright (c) 2023 Peter Nkrumah Amponsah, Mavis Okyere Wed, 05 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Preventive Measures and Potential Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis among ART Clients in Sunyani Municipality <p>This current study looked at the risk factors and preventive measures among persons living with HIV who access ART care at the Sunyani Bono Regional Hospital. A cross-sectional study was used because it simultaneously assesses both outcome and exposure variables. 340 people out of the projected 5430 in the municipality were sampled. Convenience sampling was used to select currently well PLWHA attending the ART clinic in the Bono Regional Hospital for the study. The most prevalent potential risk factors identified were lack of purification of drinking water (88.5%), farming and gardening activities (42.9%), handling cat feces without personal protection (21.0%), not washing fruits before eating (3.1%), not washing vegetables before cooking (1.2%), and an unquantified consumption of undercooked meat. The preventive measures assessed were the use of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), adherence to which was tested for their relationships with socio-demographic characteristics and challenges to adherence at the first four levels of the social-ecological model. Strong predictors of adherence were occupation and satisfaction with ARVs. However, in this study, no significant relationship was found with the multivariate analysis. Similarly, no significant relationship was identified between age and adherence to CPT at any stage of the analysis in this research study. It is recommended that clinicians who are involved in ART care encourage patients in all categories of occupations to make their treatment a priority since their health is vital to all other pursuits in their lives.</p> Anita Owusu, Jacob K. Abebrese, Sabina Ampon-Wireko, Lydia Sarponmaa Asante, Ernest Osei, Chukwuma Chinaza Adaobi Copyright (c) 2023 Anita Owusu, Jacob K. Abebrese, Sabina Ampon-Wireko, Lydia Sarponmaa Asante, Ernest Osei Thu, 27 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Impact of Sociodemographic Factors on Occupational Health and Safety Awareness in Industrial Settings <p>This research study investigates into the occupational health and safety dynamics at Weiply Company Limited, a firm that experienced significant operational changes between 2008 and 2010, notably adding plywood production to its existing sawmill operations. Employing a cross-sectional study design, the research aimed to understand the impact of these changes on the workforce, with a particular focus on occupational health and safety. It involved a comprehensive survey of 600 employees, representing various levels within the company's hierarchy, using structured questionnaires. Key findings revealed a workforce predominantly male, older, and with varied educational backgrounds. The study identified significant correlations between employees' sociodemographic characteristics like sex, age, marital status, educational status, and job position and their attitudes towards occupational health and safety. These insights underscored the need for more nuanced and inclusive safety policies and practices, tailored to meet the diverse needs of the workforce. The research emphasizes the importance of reassessing and potentially redesigning occupational health and safety approaches in organizations to ensure they are both comprehensive and effectively address the diverse needs of all employee groups.</p> Bright Peter Dzah Copyright (c) 2023 Bright Peter Dzah Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000