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This current study aimed at investigating the effects of gender (male versus female) and age (younger versus older) on consumer ethnocentrism and animosity in Indonesia in regard to eight opposed countries. Based on the ANOVA test, the findings showed that female and young consumers have a higher political and economic animosity; while female and old consumers tend to have higher ethnocentrism. The Indonesian consumers are very ethnocentric; The United States of America and Malaysia were found to be the two opposed countries with the highest score of animosity. The economic animosity is higher than political animosity in China and Taiwan as opposed countries. These findings can be utilized by marketers in designing marketing communication and segmentation strategies.


Animosity Ethnocentrism Foreign country Opposed country

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How to Cite
Sutikno, B. . (2021). Towards Consumer Ethnocentrism and Animosity in Indonesia. Convergence Chronicles, 2(2), 269–277.